Please use the underlined links to read through the other history pages on this site
1170 BC 11/23 First recorded strike (in Egypt) 1526,3/22 First American slave revolt 1581 First Europeans reach El Paso Del Norte 1590 The term "scab" is in use 1600,2/17 Giordano Bruno stripped, gagged, and burned to death in Rome for
suggesting that the Earth might not be the center of the universe 1633,6/22 Galileo forced to disavow Copernican theory. In legend, he said, "It still moves!" 1642,1/8 Death of Galileo Galilei 1732,2/22 George Washington born 1737,1/29 Birth of Thomas Paine, pamphleteer of the American Revolutoin 1770,3/5 Crispus Attucks, a free Black man, is first casualty of American revolution 1776,1/10 Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" published 1778 Printers in New York won increase in wages, but abandoned their organization after they won 1783,9/3 U.S. Revolution won; peace treaty signed with England 1786 Philadelphia printers conduct first American authenticated strike. They won minimum wage of $6/week 1791, 5/ "…the carpenters mounted America's first 10-hour day strike in May, 1791." For more on shortening the working day click here 1791,12/15 Bill of Rights in U.S. Constitution 1792 Philadelphia shoemakers organize craft union, but disbanded in less than a year 1794 Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers (shoemakers) lasted until 1806, when it was tried and fined for conspiracy 1798,3/1 First strike, printers 1800,5/9 John Brown born 1803,11/18 Haitians defeat Napolean’s army in Battle of Vertieres 1804,1/1 Haiti declares independence and emancipation. Boycotts and ostracizing from U.S. and Europe begin 1805 New York Cordwainers form union and demand a closed shop 1806 Philadelphia Journeymen Cordwainers bankrupted by "conspiracy" fine 1809,2/12 President Lincoln born 1818,2/12 Frederick Douglass born in 1818 1820,2/15 Susan B Anthony Birthday 1820,3/8 Harriet Tubman born. Later declared Int'l women's day 1825,4/27 Boston Carpenters strike for 10-hour day 1825 New York women form union, The United Tailoresses of New York 1827,8/24 First U.S. labor newspaper published 1827 First Black-owned newspaper published 1827 Mechanics' Union of Trade Associations formed from various crafts 1828 Workingmen's Party, including workers, craftsmen and farmers, formed in Philadelphia. Lasted until 1832 1828,11/28 William Silvus born. Click here 1830,5/1 Mother Jones born 1830,5/28 Cherokee removal 1834 James Walker Fanin moves to Texas and agitates for break with Mexico. Made his living as slave trader 1834 National Trades' Union formed in New York. First attempt at national labor federation failed in financial panic of 1837 1835,7/3 Children strike in Patterson, NJ for 11 hour day & 6 day week 1835,11/1 1st general strike for 10 hour day, Philadelphia PA 1836, ? Sam Houston and Cherokee Chief Bowls agree that tribe will not support Mexican government in exchange for guaranteed land 1836, 3/2 Texas declared independence from Mexico. Slavery established 1838,4/ First known Texas union started 1839,6/30 Cinque led successful slave revolt on the Amistad 1840,3/31 "President Martin Van Buren issued a broadly-applicable executive order granting the ten-hour day to all those government employees engaged in manual labor." 1841: John Neely Bryan establishes trading post on Trinity River (Dallas) 1842, Spring The Beeman family moved from Bird’s Fort to John Neely Bryan’s trading post on the Trinity River. Eventually, they named it Dallas. Click here 1842 Commonwealth v. Hunt case legalized unions and said they were not conspiracies 1843,6/1 Soujourner Truth born 1843 Galveston News established to support Mirabeau Lamar for President of Texas 1844 First Native American-owned newspaper published 1846? Lamar orders genocide in Texas. Cherokees driven off their land in East Texas 1847, 7/17 "Communistic" settlers of Bettina landed at Galveston. Their attempt to run a utopian society only lasted one year 1847 New Hampsire became first state to pass a 10-hour day law 1848 Pennsylvania passed first child labor law. Workers had to be at least twelve! 1848 Democrat Lewis Cass gets most Texas votes for President, 10,688 1848,6/24 Albert Parsons born 1848, Women gathered at Seneca Falls, NY, for program of emancipation 1850-1856 Large numbers of progressive Germans and other Europeans begin to emigrate to Texas. Among them is Otto Meitzen 1852, Democrat Franklin Pierce gets most Texas votes for President, 13,552 1852 First enduring union, Typographers, formed. Women's working hours limited to 10/day 1853, 1/28 Jose Marti, Cuban revolutionary, born 1855,11/5 EV Debs born 1856, Andre Douai and other abolitionists driven out of Texas 1856, Democrat James Buchanan gets most Texas votes for President, 31,169 1856, 9/6 Tejanos attacked for trying to free slaves in Colorado County 1857, Judge Taney ruled that fugitive slave Dred Scott had no rights in America 1859, 7/13 Beginning of Juan Cortino insurgency near Brownsville 1860 Carpenters Local#7 formed in Galveston. Longest uninterrupted union local in Texas. 1860 Democrat John Breckinridge gets most Texas votes for US President, 47,548 1860, 7/8 Fire in downtown Dallas 1860,7/24 Dallas lynchings and beatings. For Texas labor history before Civil War, click here 1861 Texas votes to secede from the union. 19 counties oppose, including most of Hill Country and North Texas. Vote in Dallas: 741 to 237 to secede. 1861, 4, Tejanos in Zapata County massacred by Confederates 1861,8/10 "Battle of Nueces" Texas Germans slaughtered while trying to get to Mexico. For this period, click here. 1862, October. 41 civilians hanged in Gainesville, 2 others shot, on suspicion of supporting the North. Click here 1862 Irish miners organized to improve conditions as "Molly Maguires." Pinkerton agency infamous for getting 10 of them hanged and 14 imprisoned in 1876 1862,2/4 Bill Bill Haywood born 1863 Brotherhood of Locmotive Engineers founded 1863,1/1 African American Emancipation 1864,5/5 Cinco de Mayo Mexican Holiday celebrating defeat of imperialist invaders in Battle of Puebla 1864,9/28 International Workingmen's Assn founded 1865,4/9 Lee Surrenders to Grant 1865,6/19 Texas African Americans learn they have been emancipated. "Juneteenth" 1865,9/16 Mexican Independence Day 1865, 12/18 13th amendment against slavery ratified. Texas passes new laws allowing convict labor and executions 1866, 8 National Labor Union, the first national labor federation in America, formed. For info, click here 1867 Knights of St Crispin founded to try to stop automation in the shoe industry. Lasted until 1878 1868,2/23 W.E.B. DuBois born 1868 Certain federal workers get 8-hour law 1868,12/31 End of Texas Freedmen's Bureau 1869, 1/6 First African American labor convention 1869,7/27 William Sylvus died. Click here 1869,12/26 Noble Order of the Knights of Labor founded as secret society in Philadelphia 1870 Texas re-admitted to United States 1870, 7/29 Coal miners win first contract 1871 Paris Commune drowned in blood 1872,? Paul Quinn Negro University begun in Waco 1872 Democrat Horace Greeley gets most Texas votes for President with 66,546 1873,2/22 Dallas gets Texas & Pacific Railroad 1873 Heinrich Schwartz arrived in Hempstead to become first ordained Rabbi in Texas 1873: Club Recipropo, an Hispanic mutual aid society, formed in Corpus Christi 1874,1/13 Tompkins Square massacre 1874 Cigar makers in San Francisco originate "union label" 1876 Kate Richards [later O’Hare] born in Kansas 1876 Outlaw Belle Starr establishes a livery stable in downtown Dallas 1876 Democrat Samuel Tilden gets most Texas votes for U.S. President with 104,755 1876,1/12 Jack London born 1877,6/21 10 miner activists called "Molly Maguires" and hanged in Pennsylvania 1877, 7/24 Federal troops used to violently suppress national railroad strike 1878, 12/12 Jane McManus Storm Cazneau drowned. She advocate emancipation of Texas slaves and annexation by the U.S. 1878 Greenback-Labor Party organized 1879,3/14 Albert Einstein born 1879,8/8 Emiliano Zapata born 1879,10/7 Joe Hill born 1880, 6/27 Helen Keller born 1880 Winfield Hancock, Democrat, gets most Texas votes for President, 156,428 1880’s Knights of labor formed five district assemblies with 30,000 members in Texas 1881 Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions (FOTLU) organized. Later became AFL 1882,? Galveston Screwmen Strike to preserve racism on the job. Click here. 1882,4/3 Jesse James shot dead 1882, Sept First Labor Day in New York 1883, 11/23 Sugar workers massacred near Thibodeaux, Louisiana 1883, 3/31 Cowboys strike in Texas Panhandle. Click here. 1883 Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen organized 1884 Democrat Grover Cleveland gets most Texas votes for U.S. President with 225,309 1884 Bureau of Labor established in the Department of Interior 1885: Farmers' Alliance formed National HQ at Jefferson, Market and Wood in downtown Dallas 1885: 10/1 First edition of Dallas Morning News. Col A.H. Belo moved to Dallas from Galveston 1885 Unions struck over use of slave convict labor in building the state capitol. Click here. 1885 Knights of Labor under Martin Irons successfully struck Jay Gould Railroad line 1886,3/1 In Sherman, Knights of Labor under Martin Irons again decides to strike Great Southwest Railway against Jay Gould. After much bloodshed, they lose this one and the Knights go into decline. For more info, click here 1886: Manuel Lopez delivered the concluding speech in Spanish at the Knights of Labor Texas state convention in San Antonio 1886,5/1 Mayday. Nationwide strike for 8-hour day. For Texas history of the period, click here. 1886,5/4 Haymarket massacre 1886, 10- Knights of Labor defied segregation laws during convention in Richmond 1886,12/8 AF of L formed from FOTLU (1881) 1887,8/24 National Association of Letter Carriers formed 1887,10/4 African American sugar workers went on strike to gain a one dollar per day wage increase in Louisiana. The Louisiana Militia, along with numerous prominent "owners," shot at least 35 unarmed workers. They then lynched two strike leaders in front of the town. Massacre in Thibodeaux area around November 23. 1887,10/20 John Reed born 1887,11/11 Haymarket martyrs hanged 1888 Democrat Grover Cleveland gets most Texas votes for US President with 234,883, but Alson Streeter of the Union Labor party received 8.2%, 29,459 1888,11/23 Harpo Marx born 1888,9/2 Carl Brannin born in Cisco, TX (died in Dallas after lifetime of social activism) 1888 Texas State Capitol completed despite national boycott because convict labor was used 1889: 4/22 Oklahoma Land Rush 1889,4/16 A. Phillip Randolph born 1889, 7/14 Bastille Day begun when French revolutionaries stormed palace 1890, 1/25 United Mine Workers of America founded 1890,8/7 Helen Gurley Flynn born 1890 Dallas was merged with the City of East Dallas 1891 James Hogg is governor of Texas for 2 terms 1891 Texas craft unions try to organize at state level but fail 1892, June, Texas People’s Party founding convention in Dallas 1892 Democrat Grover Cleveland received most Texas votes for president with 239,148. But the People’s Party candidate, James Weaver, received 99,688! 1892,7/1 Homestead steel strike. 7 strikers & 3 Pinkertons killed 1892,7/12 Carnegie Steel strike broken by gunmen 1892,11/8 20,000 workers stage general strike in New Orleans 1893,5/13 Western Federation of Miners formed in Butte, Montana 1893, December, Blind Lemon Jefferson born in Couchman, near Wortham. Click here 1894,3/25 Coxey's Army set out to cross America 1894,5/11 Nationwide railway strike, led by Gene Debs, begins at Pullman 1894,6/28 Labor Day declared official US holiday 1894,9/3 National Association of Letter Carriers formed (NALC) 1896 Democrat William Bryan received most Texas votes for President, 370,434. He was endorsed by the Progressive Party. Texas delegates opposed 1896,5/18 Supreme Court approved racial segregations 1897,2 First movie shown in Dallas 1898 Texas Federation of Labor formed 1898,4/1 William Cowper Brann, editor, shot and killed in downtown Waco. UMWA wins 8-hour day 1898,4/9 Paul Robeson born 1898,10/28 2 miners killed in Virden, Il 1900 Hurricane wiped out Galveston 1900 Democrat William Jennings Bryan received most Texas votes for President, 267,432. Socialist Eugene Debs received 1,846 and Socialist Labor Party candidate Joseph Malloney received 162. The People’s Party ran Wharton Barker, who received 20,981. 1900,4/12 Florence Reese born. She wrote "Which Side Are You On?" 1900 AFL granted charters to city-central trade councils in Austin, Dallas, Sherman, Corsicana, Gainesville and Hillsboro. Membership was 8,475 1900 International Ladies Garment Workers Union begun. Presently part of UNITE-HERE! 1901 Spindletop strike near Beaumont starts Texas oil industry. For more on oil, click here 1901, 8/21 International Federation of Trade Unions formed. AFL was in and out of it till it died in 1945 1901,7/29 Founding of Socialist Party 1902, 10/3 Theodore Roosevelt became first president to mediate during a strike. Failed to settle coal strike 1903 Africa American cowboy Bill Pickett invented “bulldogging” at a Central Texas ranch 1903,3/16 Oak Cliff residents vote to merge with Dallas 1903: UMWA wins strike in Thurber. Texas' most thoroughly union city formed (see 1920s also). Click here 1903: Theodore Roosevelt gave first presidential order prohibiting government employees from seeking wage increases by attempting to influence legislation 1904 Democrat Alton Parker won most Texas votes for President, 167,200. But Eugene Debs won 2,791, and Thomas Watson of the Populist Party won 8,062. Charles Corregan of the Socialist Labor Party received 421 1904,10/4 The Colorado State Militia killed 6 striking miners, took 15 prisoner, and deported 79 1904, ? Houston Streetcar Conductors Strike. Click here. 1905 Federal Labor Union with almost all Hispanic members founded in Laredo 1905,6/27 Industrial Workers of the World organized in Chicago. For reading on IWW, click here. 1906,2/13 Victor Reuther born 1907,9/1 Walter Reuther born. Would lead United Auto Workers 1907, 3/21 Cornerstone of Scottish Rite Cathedral laid in Dallas 1907, 3/31 "…the Flippen-Prather Realty Company announced the opening of the first 100 acres of Highland Park, a restricted residential suburban development" 1907, 3/4 "The Citizens Association came into being on March 4, 1907.... It was nothing short, The News believed, of the birth of the Greater Dallas movement.... On May 21, they won their first City elections. 1908, 5/25 Trinity River flooded Dallas 1908 William Bryan won most Texas votes for US President, 217,302. Debs won 7,870 or 2.7% while Thomas Watson of the People’s party won 994 and August Gillhaus of the Socialist Labor Party received 176 1908, 12/26 Jack Johnson of Galveston became first African American Heaveyweight Champion Race riots resulted when he successfully defended the title against white challengers. He survived betrayal, scorn, And abuse until his death in 1946. In 1954, Jack Johnson was inducted into Boxing’s Hall of Fame 1908,12/23 AFL leaders found in contempt for promoting a boycott in the Buck’s Stove case. See Labor Law as History 1908 "Yellow Dog" contracts (prohibiting union joining) outlawed 1909,2/12 NAACP begun 1909 1909,11/22 20,000 female garment workers on strike in New York 1909 Wilford B Smith moved to Dallas and published The Pitchfork until he died in 1939 1910,3/3 Dallas crowd watches downtown lynching of Allen Brooks 1911,1/12 "Bread and Roses" strike in Lawrence until March 14 1911 Southern Methodist University begun in Dallas 1911,3/25 147 garment workers either burned to death or smashed into the pavement outside the Triangle Shirtwaist factory in New York 1911 Bucks Stove and Range Case stopped an AFL boycott 1911,4/11 Death of Chitto Harjo (Wilson Jones or Crazy Snake) and the end of Native American Resistance 1912 Woodrow Wilson, Democrat, received most Texas votes for U.S. President, 221,589 while Socialist Eugene Debs took 25,743 or 8.4%. He did even better in Oklahoma. Arthur Reimer of the Socialist Labor Party won 442 1912,2/24 Women and children textile strikers beaten by Lawrence, Massachusetts, police 1912,7/14 Woody Guthrie born in Okemah, Oklahoma 1912 Houston NAACP begins its proud history. For more info click here 1913 U.S. Dept of Labor, with Bureau of Labor Statistics, established by law 1913, 2/2 Denver free speech fight led by IWW 1913 El Paso smelter workers strike broken with violence by Texas Rangers 1913,8/3 First agricultural workers strike at Durst Ranch in Wheatland, Calif. Click for more on agricultural workers 1914 Dallas’ Love Field begun as army air corps training base 1914 Houston Ship Channel opened 1914,1/5 Ford Motor Company raised wages to $5 for an 8-hour day to keep the unions out 1914,4/20 Ludlow massacre. For Texas history of the period, click here. 1914 E.R. Meitzen, Socialist candidate for Texas governor, makes his party the second largest in Texas 1914 Clayton Act gave unions, injunctions and pickets, some legal status 1915: SMU opened 1915,1/17 Ralph Chaplin publishes "Solidarity Forever". Lucy Parsons leads hunger march in Chicago 1915,11/19 Joe Hill executed in Utah 1916 Woodrow Wilson, Democrat, won 286,514 votes for President in Texas. Allan Benson of the Socialist Party won 18,969, or 5% 1916,9/2 Operating railway employees win 8-hour day under Adamson Act. "A giant victory for labor." 1916,9/5 Child Labor Law passed 1917, 4/17 Kate Richards O’Hare headed committee that drafted anti-war resolution for American Socialist Party 1917 Houston Oil companies break Texas strike to keep 12-hour, $3 day 1917,6/6 Speculator mine disaster. 164 killed at Butte, Montana 1917, 7/12 1,186 miners deported from Bisbee Arizona into barren desert. "Yellow dog" contract upheld! 1917,8/1 Frank Little Lynched in Butte. For more on Frank Little, click here 1917,8/2 Greencorn Rebellion, in which Oklahoma sharecroppers attempted to overthrow the government 1917, 8/23 20 killed in battle between Houston police and Black soldiers in Houston 1917,11/1 Texas and Louisiana oilfield workers walk out 1917,11/7 Russian Revolution 1917 Federal government took control of all railroads until 1920. 1918 "Spanish flu" kills millions 1918 Canadians win 8-hour day 1918,10/6 First National Conference of Trade Union Women 1918,11/2 Priscilla Bell birthday. Died 2001. Click here 1918 AFL counts 512 affiliated locals in Texas 1918, 11- Pan-American Federation of Labor established 1919: Socialist Party splits 3 ways with two factions supporting new Soviet Union 1919,2/6 Seattle General Strike began 1919,4/13 1919,8/4 15,000 silk workers struck in Paterson NJ for 44 hour week. 1919,8/4 Patterson NJ strike 1919,9/30 African American sharecroppers in Elaine, Arkansas, hold a meeting to unionize. Up to 900 murdered. 1919,11/11 Centralia, Washington, Massacre. 4 VFW killed, 8 IWW's jailed 25 to 40 years. Wesley Everest lynched 1919, 9/22 Great Steel Strike begun (See Brody's book) 1920, 1/20 Atty Gen Palmer arrests 4,000 foreign-born labor agitators. “Palmer Raids” are on! 1920,3/12 Longshoremen in Galveston join national walkout. Texas Legislature passed reactionary “Open Port Law,” which was declared unconstitutional in 1926 1920, 8/2 Pancho Medrano born in Dallas 1920 Texas women vote in their first presidential election 1920 Democrat James Cox won most Texas votes for President, 288,767 The “Black and Tan Republican” Party won 27,247. Socialist Eugene Debs won 8,121 or 1.7% 1920s 162 Mexican workers deported from Thurber "with acquiescence of union they had helped form." 1920,1/2 FBI seized labor leaders and union leaders 1920,5/19 Matewan Massacre in SW Virginia 1920,8/2 Pancho Medrano Sr born 1920,8/26 Women win vote 1920 (Late in year) Ku Klux Klan #66 organized in Dallas. Click here 1921, 5/24 Two Italian activists, Sacco & Vanzetti, framed up for murder, eventually executed 1921,5/24 Dallas Morning News editorializes against Ku Klux Klan after big downtown rally 1921,5/31 More than 300 African Americans killed in Tulsa, Oklahoma 1921, Christmas week, Debs freed from prison. Kate Richards O’Hare freed earlier that year. O’Hare led “children’s crusade” to get Greencorn rebels and other anti-war activists out of prison 1922 Open Port Law used to break Houston strike of railroad shop workers 1922 Dallas city elections carried by Ku Klux Klan 1922, 11? Texas elected Earle B Mayfield, an admitted KKK member, to the U.S. Senate. Click here 1923 African American inventor Henry Garrett installs the first traffic lights in Dallas or in the world 1923 2/8 Five African Americans electrocuted in Huntsville. Legal Texas lynching begins to replace illegal 1924 Daily Worker began publishing 1924 Democrat John Davis won most Texas votes for President with 484,605 1924,? AFL Convention held in El Paso 1924,6/2 Native Americans granted U.S. citizenship 1924,6/14 children burned to death in IWW hall in San Pedro, California 1924,12/13 AFL President Samuel Gompers died in San Antonio 1925 Dallas Negro Chamber of Commerce (later Black Chamber) begun 1925,5/19 Malcolm X born 1926, 5/20 Railway Labor Act assured railroad unions the right to negotiate 1926 Oil money from Santa Rita strike begins funding Texas higher education 1926 Chuck Berry born 1926 Dallas Negro Chamber of Commerce organized. Eventually renamed "Black Chamber..." 1927,3/31 Cesar Chavez born 1927, 6/26 miners struck in Bisbee, Arizona 1927,8/22 Sacco & Vanzetti executed 1927 Blind Lemon Jefferson of Dallas tops "race record" charts. Click here 1928 Republican Herbert Hoover won most Texas votes for President with 367,036. Socialist Norman Thomas won 722 and Communist William Z Foster won 209 1929,1/15 MLK born1929,9/14 Ella Mae Wiggins murdered when her truckload of striking unionists ambushed by vigilantes during textile strike in Gastonia, NC. All arrested were acquitted 1929 Trade Union Unity League began pushing for industrial, instead of craft, union organizing 1930, 11- Metal Trades Department of the AFL endorsed demand for 5-hour day 1930, 4/14 John Steinbeck published The Grapes of Wrath 1930: Catholic Workers Union formed for Hispanic agricultural workers in Crystal City 1930, 5/9 Sherman lynch mob burns all African American Business 1930,11/30 "Mother Jones" Mary Jones died 1931, 3/3 Daivs-Bacon bill guaranteed “prevailing wgae rate” on federal construction sites 1931,12/7 Hunger March on Washington 1932 Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow start 2-year crime spree in their home town of Dallas 1932 Democrat Franklin Roosevelt wins most Texas votes for President with 760,348. Communist William Foster won 207; Socialist Norman Thomas won 4,450 1932,3/7 Ford Hunger March. 5 killed near Detroit 1932 "Anti-injunction" Norris-LaGuardia Act prohibited federal injunctions against labor and outlawed "Yellow Dog" contracts 1932,5/15 NY Times announces that AFL dropped its traditional opposition to unemployment insurance. Later that year, they reversed Gompers' tradition of "voluntarism" and asked for 6-hour day legislation. 1932 Wisconsin adopted first unemployment insurance act in the U.S. 1933 Association of Journaleros formed as independent union of Texicans from many occupations 1933, 4/30 Singer Willy Nelson born 1933,6/16 National Industrial Recovery Act became law, including section 7(a) that said, "employees shall have the right to organize and bargain collectively through representatives of their own choosing, and shall be free from interference, restraint, or coercion of employees… in the designation of such representatives." 1933 Wagner-Peyser Act created United States Employment Service in the Dept of Labor 1934,2/12 Dressmakers walk out on 15 factories owned by the Texas Dress Manufacturers in Dallas 1934, Thurber High School graduates its last class. The only union town in Texas deserted 1934,4/6 U.S. Senate approves Hugo Black’s bill for a 30-hour week. President Roosevelt is thus goaded into approving NLRA 1934,7/16 San Francisco General Strike 1935,6/1 Wagner Act Passed. It was called National Labor Relations Act and "Labor's Magna Carta" 1935,7/5 National Labor Relations Act passes Congress. For arguments against the NLRA, see Labor Law as History 1935,8/14 Roosevelt signs Social Security Act over Republican opposition. Click here 1935,8/26 UAW chartered by AFL. Francis Dillon appointed president. For Texas history of the period, click here. 1935,11/9 CIO formed as committee in AFL 1936,1/29 Akron rubber workers sit-down strike 1936,5/21 Washington Job Protection Agreement passed 1936 Democrat Franklin Roosevelt won most Texas votes for President: 734,485. Socialist Norman Thomas won 1,075 and Communist Earl Browder won 253 CIO organized unions all over Texas 1936 12/24 150 Houston dockworkers beaten by police 1937,1/24 UAW organizes first aircraft local 1937,2/11 Sit down at Flint begins. Victory comes on March 4th. 1937,5/26 "Little Steel" strike 1937,5/30 Memorial Day massacre at Republic steel 1937,6/24 Railroad Retirement Act passed 1937,8/25 Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters gets contract with Pullman Company 1937 Bluesman Robert Johnson records 13 tracks at 508 Park Av in Dallas 1937 Texas Rangers sent to Dallas to oppose labor strikes 1938,2/2 San Antonio pecan shellers' strike. For more on this click here For Manuela Sager's story on it, click here 1938,5/16 U.S. Supreme Court decision permits "permanent replacement" of strikers 1938,6/25 Fair Labor Standards Act signed by FDR. Effective 10-24-38 1938, October, Federal Minimum Wage law took effect and set wages at 25 cents/hour 11/1938: CIO holds first first constitutional convention as separate organization 1939 Texas Building Trades Council formed after “New Deal” brought 1,750 projects to Texas 1940 Mexican Chamber of Commerce formed in Dallas. Later named Hispanic Chamber 1940 Democrat Franklin Roosevelt gets most Texas votes for President with 840,151. Socialist Norman Thomas gets 728 and Communist Earl Browder gets 212 1940,10/24 40-hour workweek goes into effect under FLSA of 1938 1941,4/1 UAW strikes at Ford for recognition 1941,4/11 Ford signs first UAW Contract 1941,6/20 Breakthrough contract signed with Ford at River Rouge Plant. In the same year in the Dallas Ford plant, UAW 870 chartered. Click here 1941, 9/1 In a Labor Day editorial, the Dallas Morning News proposed a constitutional amendment for “Right to Work/Scab.” 1941,12/7 Pearl Harbor day 1942,2/19 Japanese Americans put in concentration camps 1942, 8/24 Bracero Program instituted to bring in 50,000 Mexican workers first year. "Wartime" program kept until 1964 1942, 11/24 War Labor Board adopted official policy of equal pay for equal work for men & women 1943 NAACP lawsuit wins equal pay for African American teachers in Dallas schools 1943,2/21 UAW Local 645 wins ratification at North American in Grand Prairie 1943,4/22 First UAW-CIO contract at North American Aviation in Grand Prairie, Texas 1943, 6/15 Racist pogrom in Beaumont 1943 FDR created Fair Employment Practices to end discrimination in war industries 1944,6/5 D Day. Americans engage Germans in France 1944 Democrat FD Roosevelt gets most Texas votes for President with 821,605. Socialist Norman Thomas gets 594 1944,8/3 White streetcar workers in Philadelphia strike to protest promotions of Black employees 1945,5/8 VE day 1945,8/7 Hiroshima bombed 1945,8/9 Nagasaki bombed 1945 Oil workers carry out strike for “52 for 40 or fight!” to get 52 hrs pay for 40 hrs work. President Truman used the military to break the strike 1945, 10- World Federation of Trade Unions organized with CIO support. They left it in 1949 1946,1/21 Steel Strike 1947, March. Measure passed to create Houston College for Negroes, which later became Texas Southern University. 1947, 4/8 Texas passed its “Right to Work/Scab” law in eager anticipation of its pending legalization in Congress. 1947,6/23 Taft Hartley anti-union law passed over Truman's veto. Section 14(b) allows “Right to Work/Scab” laws. For a discussion of labor law as history, click here 1948, January Kate Richards O’Hare died in California 1948 Democrat Harry Truman gets most Texas votes with 750,700. Socialist Norman Thomas received 874 1948 U.S. military is racially integrated 1948 Mississippi was last state to enact workermen's compensation legislation 1949: A. Maceo Smith of Dallas elected to NAACP national board 1949,2/1 13th Amendment 1949,8/3 UAW wins Local 893 at Vought in Grand Prairie, Texas 1949,9/29 UAW negotiated first pension plan ($100/mo) with Ford. Union movement abandoned expanding Social Security and, with contractual health care for members, abandoned national health care plan 1949,11/4 International Union of Electrical Workers (IUE) set up to grab Electrical Workers Union (UE) contracts as part of CIO effort to destroy unions whose officers failed to take the anti-communist oath 1949 Inland Steel Co V. United Steelworkers of America (CIO) case allowed unions to bargain for retirement plans 195_ Jose Estrada deported (twice?) from Dallas after accusations of communism 1950 Federal government took over the railroads until 1952 1950 Heman Sweatt enters law school at UT. First African American 1950,5/29 UAW GM Workers win hospitalization plan and Cost of Living (COLA) raises 1950,12/3 UAW Local 893 wins its first COLA raise at Vought, $.03 1951 International Association of Machinists returned to AFL after being out since 1945 1952 Republican Dwight Eisenhower received most Texas votes for US President with 1,102,878. Vincent Hallinan of Progressive Party won 294 1952, November. Presidents Philip Murray of the CIO and William Green of the AFL both died Walter Reuther and George Meany take over 1953,7/27 End of Korean war 1954,5/17 Supreme Court rules segregated schools unconstitutional in Brown v Topeka 1954, 6/29 NAACP holds national convention in Dallas 1954,9/7 Elaine Lantz born, 1954 1954, 9/7 Dallas NAACP lined Black students at door of Linfield Elementary to show that Black students are not still admitted despite Supreme Court ruling 1954 Incumbent Dixiecrat Governor Alan Shivers used red-baiting and opposition to unions to barely defeat Ralph Yarborough 1955, 9/12 NAACP filed suit seeking full integration of Dallas schools. Fight continued to 2003. click here 1955,12/5 AFL and CIO merge into AFL-CIO with George Meany as President Mid 1950’s: Texas Attorney General John Ben Shepperd outlawed the NAACP in Texas, He declared it a subversive organization. Texans kept their membership secret 1955,7/20 Convair Crusader nuclear-powered aircraft began testing at Ft Worth Convair plant. Project abandoned 3/28/57 1955,12/1 Rosa Parks arrested on bus in Montgomery 1956,3/1 Fair Labor Standards Act amended to raise the minimum wage to $1/hour 1956: 7/28 Texans voted more than 3 to 1 for segregation measures. See Notes 1956 Republican Eisenhower gets most Texas votes with 1,080,619 1956, 8/31 Racist threats and official malfeasance triumph over integration in Mansfield 1957, Dec AFL-CIO expelled Teamsters, Bakery Workers, and Laundry Workers. Three railroad unions affiliated 1957, 7/30 Texas AFL-CIO forms 1959,12/5 Montgomery bus boycott begins. Texan Pancho Medrano sent by UAW to assist 1960 Democrat John Kennedy gets 1,167,932 votes to win Texas 1960 AFL-CIO Texas union membership peaks at 400,000 members 1961,4/24 Bay of Pigs in Cuba 1961, 4/27 Dr. Martin Luther King addressed the 25th anniversary of UAWs 1962, 1/15 Federal employees gain right of collective bargaining under Kennedy 1963, 11/22 Jack Kennedy assassination in Dallas 1963,11/9 End of poll taxes in Texas. For Texas history of the period, click here 1963 6/9 Equal Pay Act prohibited discrimination against women 1963,6/12 Medgar Evers assassinated in Mississippi 1963,8/28 "I Have A Dream" March on Washington 1964 San Antonio bookseller accused of having “seditious papers” (books by Marx and Jean-Paul Sartre). Case goes to Supreme Court 1964 Democrat Lyndon Johnson gets1,663,185 votes to win Texas 1964,6/21 Civil Rights activists Chaney, Goodman and Schwerner murdered in Mississippi 1964,7/2 1964 Civil Rights Act passed 1964,7/9 Mass Transportation Act passed 1964 Bracero Program ended 1965,2/21 Malcolm X assassinated 1965,3/21 Selma Freedom March 1965,5/26 A. Philip Randolph Institute founded 1965,7/30 Medicare law passed 1965,9/6 farm workers start grape boycott 1966, 6/1 Star County farm workers strike near Rio Grande City 1966,8/22 United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC) formed from Cesar Chavez' independent union and AFL-CIO AWOC. Later became United Farm Workers of America (UFW) 1967, Jan Dr. George Green starts Labor History Archives at the University of Texas in Arlington. Grew to be largest in Southwest. Click here. 1967 “Riots” at Texas Southern University. Thousands of police bullets riddle boys’ dormitory 1967 First African American member of Dallas School Board, Emmett Conrad, elected 1967 Texas women relieved from some legal oppression. Click here 1968 Democrat Hubert Humphrey gets 1,266,804 votes to win Texas 1968,4/4 MLK killed in Memphis while helping sanitation workers strike 1968, 6/5 Robert Kennedy killed 1968,10/2 Tlatelolco massacre, 500 killed in Mexico City 1969 First African American on Dallas City Council, George Allen, elected. Anita N Martinez is first Hispanic elected to City Council 1969,2/4 Mark Clark and Fred Hampton killed by Chicago police 1969, 6/28 Stonewall Riot in Manhattan started the modern gay rights movement 1969, Peter Johnson arrived in Dallas to promoted the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) 1969,9/11 Texas Instruments founders donate land for UT-Dallas 1970 Jose Angel Gutierrez & others start La Raza Unida Party in Crystal City 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) passed after a long fight 1970’s San Antonio community organization COPS became a force under Ernesto Cortes 1970,4/21 Earth Day 1970,5/7 UAW President Walter Reuther sends telegram to President Nixon protesting the invasion of Cambodia 1970,8/1 Carl Hampton killed by Houston police 1970, 10-6 Dallas Legal Services filed Tasby v Ellis to integrate schools. Click here 1971 18 African Americans file lawsuit to replace Dallas’ at-large City Council elections 1971, Teamsters National Black Caucus formed 1971,5/9 Walter & May Reuther killed 1972 Democrat George McGovern gets 1,154,289 votes to win Texas. Socialist Workers Party candidate Linda Jenness gets 8,864 1973 (?) United Farm Workers joined AFL-CIO 1973, 1/22 Abortion legalized by Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision begun in Dallas 1973, 2/27 American Indian Movement (AIM) stands up to FBI at Wounded Knee 1973, 7/24 Little Santos Rodriguez killed by Dallas police. Click here 1973,1/27 End of Vietnam War. For notes on labor’s role, click here 1973,7/13 Labor Council for Latin American Advancement (LCLAA) formed 1973 Houston policemen exposed as members of KKK 1974: U.S. Supreme Court decides in favor of Medrano et al over A.Y. Alee and the Texas Rangers 1974,2/23 Farah recognizes ACTWU as bargaining agent in El Paso pants factory after nationwide fight 1976,9 San Antonio legal workers protected their union brothers and sisters by refusing to show their documents during an INS raid 1974,3/22 Coalition of Labor Union Women (CLUW) founded 1974,8/1 First women American miners began work 1975,7/30 Jimmy Hoffa disappeared 1975,11/13 Karen Silkwood killed while trying to alert workers about the dangers of radioactivity 1976 Democrat Jimmy Carter gets 2,082,319 Texas votes. Peter Camejo Soc Work gets 1,723. Anti-war independent Eugene McCarthy received 20,118 and there were 2,982 write-in votes 1979,3/27 Three Mile Island nuclear accident occurred 1979, 6/13 Texas makes June 19 “Juneteenth” a state holiday. The first state to thus honor emancipation. 1979,7/19 Nicaragua revolution 1980 Republican Ronald Reagan won Texas with 2,510,705 votes 1980,3/24 Archbishop Oscar Romero assassinated by graduates of the U.S. Army School of the Americas 1980,4/11 EEOC began to regulate sexual harassment 1980,8/22 Joyce Miller is first woman elected to AFL-CIO Executive Council 1981 First former union president and FBI informant inaugurated President of U.S. (Reagan) 1981, 6/19 Three highschoolers, Baker, Freeman and Booker, drowned at Comanche Crossing while in police custody at Juneteenth celebration. Police exonerated by all-white jury in Dallas. Giant Mejia annual celebrations diminish 1981,8/3 PATCO union broken by President Reagan. Almost all union memberships decline 1982: Texas Farm Workers union disbanded. Antonio Orendain had broken away from UFW 1982 Ku Klux Klan marched through Dallas and demonstrated on police station steps. For more on KKK, click here 1984,8/20: Republican convention re-nominates Ronald Reagan at Dallas Convention 1984 Republican Ronald Reagan won Texas with 3,433,428 votes. Communist Gus Hall had 126 write-in votes 1984,5/21 First five union activists fired by LTV in Grand Prairie, Texas 1985,7/1 UAW 848 wins contract with LTV after 15-month in-plant strategy 1986-89 Hundreds of Texas Savings & Loans collapse 1987,4/18 Dallas elects first woman mayor, Annette Strauss 1987,10/19 Stock market crash 1987 Five major industrial unions initiate the Jobs with Justice coalition. Eastern Airlines strike support benefits 1988 Republican George Bush won Texas with 3,036,829 1989,// Dallas activists join Amalgamated Transit Union strike against Greyhound 1990,1/15 North Texas Jobs with Justice carries out its first action, the Dallas MLK birthday march. Click here 1990,2/19 Pittston miners strike wins 1990, 6/15 Justice for Janitors Day established 1991, 3- NAACP and SCLC announce boycott to protest the city’s resistance to the court-ordered City Council election plan 1991 The 1971 lawsuit for fairer City Council elections in Dallas wins. Only the mayor will be elected “at large.” 1991, 11/5 Voters elect first Dallas City Council under 14-1 plan 1991,8/31 "Solidarity Day II" 300,000 trade unionists march on Washington 1991,9/3 25 poultry workers killed by fire in unsafe plant in Hamlet, NC 1992 Republican George Bush won Texas with 2,496,071, but Democrat Clinton elected President 1992,3/5 Caterpillar declared impasse in negotiations with UAW 1992, 6/29 Ravenswood strikers victorious 1993 The Vatican reviewed Galileo Galilei's case and found him innocent of heresy 1993,4/13 It became illegal for Oklahoma men to rape their wives 1993,4/28 Workers' Memorial Day began 1994,1/1 NAFTA began 1994, Nov 30-Dec 2. Industrial Union Dept of AFL-CIO conference “Organizing, Workplace Rights, and & Building Our Unions” in Washington, DC. Established principles later used by challengers in 1995 AFL-CIO elections 1994, George W Bush elected Governor. Major quarrels with labor begin. Click here 1995, 5/11 The Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (ACTWU) prior to forming UNITE!, signed a contract with Fojtasek in Dallas. An almost totally immigrant workforce now had a union contract in Texas! Click here 1995, April (?) 12-year old Iqbal Masih, a world figure in the fight against child labor, shotgunned to death 1995,7/1 Baltimore City Council put first “Living Wage” ordinance into effect 1995,10/23 AFL-CIO changes top leadership. For their program and some discussion, click here 1995 Amalgamated Clothiers and Textile Workers Union (ACTWU) merges with International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) to form UNITE! Efforts underway to organize immigrant locals 1996 Telecommunications Act accelerated the concentration of information sources into a few corporate hands 1996, 4/28 Manuela Soliz Sager died after lifelong commitment to Texas labor struggles 1996 Republican Bob Dole won Texas with 2,736,167 1997, 8/14 Nationwide solidarity helped Teamsters win UPS strike 1997,7/24 Dallas Diocese loses major sexual abuse case 1999,11/30 Labor joins large assembly of activists in opposing World Trade Organization in Seattle 2000, 4/10 Machinists struck Lockheed in Ft Worth 2000 George W. Bush, Republican, gets 3,799,639 Texas votes to win the delegation. Overall vote in Texas: 59%, but much lower in major cities. Dallas vote: 52%. But Bush raised most of his money in Texas. Supreme Court rules that Bush won election 2001, 9/25 Oklahomans lose “Right to Work/Scab” election. Click here for info 2001 North Texas labor loses the body, but not the spirit, of Miss Priscilla Bell. Click here 2001, 9/11 World Trade Center destroyed, wars in Middle East begun 2002, 4/4 Pancho Medrano "Senior" died in Dallas 2003, 1/28 Maury Maverick Jr, great Texas civil libertarian, dies in San Antonio 2003, 6-5 Judge Barefoot Sanders declares Dallas schools integrated after 48-year fight! Click here 2004 GW Bush inaguarated for second term. For Texas history into 2001, click here. For Texas history into 2003, click here.
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